Vector Genetics Laboratory

University of California, Davis

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Published Papers (selected)

2013 Bookchapter

Gregory C. Lanzaro and Yoosook Lee (2013). Speciation in Anopheles gambiae . The Distribution of Genetic Polymorphism and Patterns of Reproductive Isolation Among Natural Populations, Anopheles mosquitoes - New insights into malaria vectors, Prof. Sylvie Manguin (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-1188-7, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/56232.


Cornel AJ, Holeman J, Nieman CC, Lee Y, Smith C, Amorino M, Brisco K, Barrera R, Lanzaro GC, Mulligan III FS. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California. 2016. F1000res. 5:194. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.8107.1. ** INDEXED **

Maliti DV, Marsden CD, Main BJ, Govella NJ, Yamasaki Y, Collier TC, Kreppel K, Chiu JC, Lanzaro GC, Ferguson HM, Lee Y. Investigating associations between biting time in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton and single nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes: support for sub-structure among An. arabiensis in the Kilombero valley of Tanzania. 2016. Parasit Vectors. 27;9(1):109. Doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1394-8.

Cornel AJ, Brisco KK, Tadei WP, Secundino NF, Galardo AKR, Medeiros JF, Pessoa FAC, Rios-Velasquez CM, Lee Y, Pimenta PFP, Lanzaro GC. Anopheles darlingi polytene chromosomes: revised maps including newly described inversion and evidence for population structure in Manaus. 2016. Memorias. 111(5): 335-346.

Brisco KK, Cornel AJ, Lee Y, Mouatcho J, Braack L. Comparing efficacy of a sweep net and a dip method for collection of mosquito larvae in large bodies of water in South Africa. F1000res. 5:713. (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.8351.1)

Main BJ, Lee Y, Ferguson HM, Kreppel KS, Kihonda A, Govella NJ, Collier TC, Cornel AJ, Eskin E, Kang EY, Nieman CC, Weakley AM, Lanzaro GC. The Genetic Basis of host preference and indoor resting behavior in the major African malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis. PLoS Genetics. 12(9): e1006303. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006303.


Main BJ, Lee Y, Collier TC, Norris LC, Brisco K, Fofana A, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC. Complex genome evolution in Anopheles coluzzii associated with increased insecticide usage in Mali. Mol Ecol. 2015. 24(20):5145-5157. doi:10.1111/mec.13382. PMCID: PMC4615556.

Nieman CC, Yamasaki Y, Collier TC, Lee Y. A DNA extraction protocol for improved DNA yield from individual mosquitoes . F1000res, doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7413.1 ** INDEXED **

Lanzaro GC, Collier TC, Lee Y. Defining genetic, taxonomic and geographic boundaries among species of the Psorophora confinnis (Diptera:Culicidae) complex in the Americas. J Med Entomol, DOI:

Lee Y, Olson N, Yamasaki Y, Chang A, Marsden C, Ouledi A, Lanzaro G, Cornel A. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa . F1000Research. 2015. 4:146 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.6567.1) ** INDEXED **

Norris LC, Main BJ, Lee Y, Collier TC, Fofana A, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC. Adaptive introgression in an African malaria mosquito coincident with the increased usage of insecticide-treated bed nets. PNAS. 2015. 112(3):815-820. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418892112

Ng'habi KR, Lee Y, Knols BGJ, Mwasheshi D, Lanzaro GC, Ferguson HM Colonization of malaria vectors under semi-field conditions as a strategy for maintaining genetic and phenotypic similarity with wild populations. 2015. Malaria J. 14:10. doi:10.1186/s12936-014-0523-0

Lee Y, Weakley AM, Nieman CC, Malvick J, Lanzaro GC. A multi-detection assay for malaria transmitting mosquitoes. JoVE. 2015. 96. e52385.


Sanford MR, Cornel AJ, Nieman CC, Dinis J, Marsden CD, Weakley AM, Han S, Rodrigues A, Lanzaro GC, Lee Y. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some Anopheles spp. from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. 2014. F1000Research. 3(243). ** INDEXED **

Marsden CD, Lee Y, Kreppel K, Weakley A, Cornel A, Ferguson HM, Eskin E, Lanzaro GC. Diversity, differentiation and linkage disequilibrium: prospects for association mapping in the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis. G3 (Bethesda). 2014 Jan 10;4(1):121-31. doi: 10.1534/g3.113.008326. PMCID: PMC3887528.

Lee Y, Marsden CD, Nieman C, Lanzaro GC. A new multiplex SNP genotyping assay for detecting hybridization and introgression between the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. Mol Ecol Resour. 2014 Mar;14(2):297-305. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12181. Epub 2013 Nov 11. PMCID: PMC3947471.


Lee Y, Marsden CD, Norris LC, Collier TC, Main Bradley, Fofana A, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC. Spatio-temporal dynamics of gene flow and hybrid fitness between the M and S forms of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. PNAS. 2013 Dec 3;110(49):19854-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316851110.

Sanford MR, Ramsay S, Cornel AJ, Marsden CD, Norris LC, Patchoke S, Fondjo E, Lanzaro GC, Lee Y. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between water quality and Anopheles gambiae larval habitats in western Cameroon. Malar J. 2013. 12:225. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-225. PMCID: PMC3704728.

Marsden CD, Cornel A, Lee Y, Sanford MR, Norris LC, Goodell PB, Nieman CC, Han S, Rodrigues A, Denis J, Ouledi A, Lanzaro GC. An analysis of two island groups as potential sites for trials of transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control. Evol Appl. 2013. DOI: 10.1111/eva.12056

Lee Y, Collier TC, Sanford MR, Marsden CD, Fofana A, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC. Chromosome Inversions, Genomic Differentiation and Speciation in the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae. PLoS One. 2013. 8(3): e57887. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057887


Cornel AJ, Lee Y, Trout Fryxell RT, Seifert S, Nieman C, Lanzaro GC. Culex pipiens Sensu Lato in California: A Complex Within a Complex? J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2012. 28 (4s):113-121.

Trout Fryxell RT, Nieman CC, Fofana A, Lee Y, Traore SF, Cornel AJ, Luckhart S, Lanzaro GC Differential Plasmodium falciparum infection of Anopheles gambiae s.s. molecular and chromosomal forms in Mali. Malar J. 2012. 11:133.

Fryxell RT, Seifert SN, Lee Y, Sacko A, Lanzaro G, Cornel A The knockdown resistance mutation and knockdown time in Anopheles gambiae collected from Mali evaluated through a bottle bioassay and a novel insecticide-treated net bioassay. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2012. 28(2):119-22.

Lee Y, Seifert SN, Nieman CS, McAbee RD, Goodell P, Fryxell RT, Lanzaro GC, Cornel AJ. High degree of single nucleotide polymorphisms in California Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae) sensu lato. J Med Entomol. 2012. 49(2): 299-306.

Lee Y, Seifert SN, Fornadel CM, Norris DE, Lanzaro GC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for high-throughput genotyping of Anopheles arabiensis in East and Southern Africa. J Med Entomol. 2012. 49(2): 307-315.

Demirci B, Lee Y, Lanzaro GC, B Alten. Identification and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2012. 49(3): 581-588.

Demirci B, Lee Y, Lanzaro GC, Alten B. Altitudinal genetic and morphometric variation among populations of Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) from northeastern Turkey. J Vector Ecol. 2012 Jun;37(1):197-209. doi: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00217.x.


Sanford MR, Demirci B, Marsden CD, Lee Y, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC. Morphological Differentiation may Mediate Mate-Choice between Incipient Species of Anopheles gambiae s.s. PLoS One. 2011. 6(11): e27920.

Ng'habi KR, Knos BGJ, Lee Y, Ferguson HM, Lanzaro GC. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in a malaria endemic region of southern Tanzania. Malar J. 2011. 10:289

Marsden CD, Lee Y, Neiman C, Sanford MR, Dinis J, Marins C, Rodrigues AR, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC. Asymmetric introgression between the M and S molecular forms of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, maintains divergence despite extensive hybridisation. Mol Ecol. 2011. 20(23): 4983-4994.


Arensburger P, Megy K, Waterhouse RM, Abrudan J, Amedeo P, Antelo B, Bartholomay L, Bidwell S, Caler E, Camara F, Campbell CL, Campbell KS, Casola C, Castro MT, Chandramouliswaran I, Chapman SB, Christley S, Costas J, Eisenstadt E, Feschotte C, Fraser-Liggett C, Guigo R, Haas B, Hammond M, Hansson BS, Hemingway J, Hill SR, Howarth C, Ignell R, Kennedy RC, Kodira CD, Lobo NF, Mao C, Mayhew G, Michel K, Mori A, Liu N, Naveira H, Nene V, Nguyen N, Pearson MD, Pritham EJ, Puiu D, Qi Y, Ranson H, Ribeiro JM, Roberston HM, Severson DW, Shumway M, Stanke M, Strausberg RL, Sun C, Sutton G, Tu ZJ, Tubio JM, Unger MF, Vanlandingham DL, Vilella AJ, White O, White JR, Wondji CS, Wortman J, Zdobnov EM, Birren B, Christensen BM, Collins FH, Cornel A, Dimopoulos G, Hannick LI, Higgs S, Lanzaro GC, Lawson D, Lee NH, Muskavitch MA, Raikhel AS, Atkinson PW. Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for mosquito comparative genomics. Science. 2010 330(6000):86-8.

Horton AA, Lee Y, Coulibaly CA, Rashbrook VK, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC, Luckhart S. Identification of three single nucleotide polymorphisms in Anopheles gambiae immune signaling genes that are associated with natural Plasmodium falciparum infection. Malar J. 2010 9:160. PMCID: PMC2896950.


Lee Y, Cornel AJ, Meneses CR, Fofana A, Andrianarivo AG, McAbee RD, Fondjo E, Traoré SF, Lanzaro GC . Ecological and genetic relationships of the Forest-M form among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Malar J. 2009 8:75.

Ndjemaï HN, Patchoké S, Atangana J, Etang J, Simard F, Bilong CF, Reimer L, Cornel A, Lanzaro GC, Fondjo E. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 103(11):1127-38

Goltsev Y, Rezende GL, Vranizan K, Lanzaro G, Valle D, Levine M. Developmental and evolutionary basis for drought tolerance of the Anopheles gambiae embryo. Dev Biol. 2009 330(2):462-70.

Lee Y, Meneses CR, Fofana A, Lanzaro GC. Desiccation resistance among subpopulations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Selinkenyi, Mali. J Med Entomol. 2009 46(2):316-20.


Milleron RS, Meneses CR, Elnaiem DA, Lanzaro GC. Effects of varying moisture on egg production and longevity of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Med Entomol. 2008 45(1):160-5.

Moncayo AC, Lanzaro G, Kang W, Orozco A, Ulloa A, Arredondo-Jiménez J, Weaver SC. Vector competence of eastern and western forms of Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes for enzootic and epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 78(3):413-21. PubMed PMID:18337337.

Reimer L, Fondjo E, Patchoké S, Diallo B, Lee Y, Ng A, Ndjemai HM, Atangana J, Traore SF, Lanzaro G, Cornel AJ. Relationship between kdr mutation and resistance to pyrethroid and DDT insecticides in natural populations of Anopheles gambiae. J Med Entomol. 2008 45(2):260-6.

Wong J, Tripet F, Rasgon JL, Lanzaro GC, Scott TW. SSCP analysis of scnDNA for genetic profiling of Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 79(4):511-7.

Ng'habi KR, Meneses CR, Cornel AJ, Slotman MA, Knols BG, Ferguson HM, Lanzaro GC. Clarification of anomalies in the application of a 2La molecular karyotyping method for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Parasit Vectors. 2008 17;1(1):45. PMCID: PMC2628339.


Wang-Sattler R, Blandin S, Ning Y, Blass C, Dolo G, Touré YT, delle Torre A, Lanzaro GC, Steinmetz LM, Kafatos FC, Zheng L. Mosaic genome architecture of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. PLoS ONE. 2007 Nov 28;2(11):e1249. PMCID: PMC2082662.

Edillo FE, Tripet F, McAbee RD, Foppa IM, Lanzaro GC, Cornel AJ, Spielman A A set of broadly applicable microsatellite markers for analyzing the structure of Culex pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) populations. J. Med. Entomol. 44:145-149, 2007.

Slotman MA, Tripet F, Cornel AJ, Meneses CR, Lee Y, Reimer LJ, Thiemann TC, Fondjo E, Fofana A, Traoré SF, Lanzaro GC. Evidence for subdivision within the M molecular form of Anopheles gambiae Mol Ecol. 16(3): 639-649, 2007.

Tripet F, Wright J, Cornel A, Fofana A, McAbee R, Meneses C, Reimer L, Slotman M, Thiemann T, Dolo G, Traoré S, Lanzaro G. Longitudinal survey of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid (kdr) in Mali, West Africa, and evidence of its emergence in the Bamako form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jan;76(1):81-7.


Slotman MA, Reimer LJ, Thiemann T, Dolo G, Fondjo E, Lanzaro GC. Reduced recombination rate and genetic differentiation between the M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Genetics 174: 2081-2093, 2006.

Edillo, F.E., Tripet, F., Touré, Y.T., Lanzaro, G.C., Dolo, G., and Taylor, C.E. Water quality and immatures of the M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in a Malian village. Malar J. 5: 35p., 2006.

Tripet, F., Wright, J. and Lanzaro, G.C. A new high performance PCR diagnostic for the detection of pyrethroid resistance kdr in Anopheles gambiae. Am. J. Trop Med. Hyg. 74: 658-662, 2006.


Reimer, L. J., Tripet, F., Slotman, M., Spielman, A., and Lanzaro, G. C. An unusual distribution of the kdr gene among populations of Anopheles gambiae on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Insect Mol. Biol. 14:683-688, 2005.

Hahn, M. W., and Lanzaro, G. C. Female-biased gene expression in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Current Biology, 15: R192-R193, 2005.

Tripet, F., Dolo, G., and Lanzaro, G. C. Multilevel analyses of genetic differentiation in Anopheles gambiae s.s. reveal patterns of gene flow important for malaria-fighting mosquito projects. Genetics. 169: 313-324, 2005.

Lanzaro, G. C., Nuzhdin, S., and Tripet, F. Tools for monitoring the genetic structure and stability of mosquito populations. In: Proceedings: Working Group on Strategic Plan to Bridge Laboratory and Field Research in Disease Vector Control. 14-16 July 2004, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Frontis Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Tripet, F., Thiemann, T., and Lanzaro, G. C. Effect of seminal fluids in mating between the M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae. J. Med. Entomol. 42: 596-603, 2005.

Elnaiem, D., Meneses, C., Slotman, M., and Lanzaro, G. C. Genetic variation in the sand fly salivary protein, SP-15, a potential vaccine candidate against Leishmania major. Insect Mol. Biol. 14: 145-150, 2005.

Tripet, F., Dolo, G. , and Lanzaro, G. C. Multilevel analyses of genetic differentiation in Anopheles gambiae s.s. reveal patterns of gene flow important for malaria-fighting mosquito projects. Genetics. 169: 313-324, 2005.


Edillo, F. E., Touré, Y. T., Lanzaro, G. C., Dolo, G., and Taylor, C. E. Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani Village, Mali. J. Med. Entomol. 41: 333-339, 2004.

Goltsev Y., Hsiong W., Lanzaro, G. C., and Levine, M. Different combinations of gap repressors for common stripes in Anopheles and Drosophila embryos. Dev. Biol. 275: 435– 446, 2004.

Milleron, R. S., Ribeiro, J. M., Elnaiem, D., Soong, L., and Lanzaro, G. C. Negative effect of antibodies against maxadilan on the fitness of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 278-285, 2004.

Milleron, R. S., Mutebi, JP., Valle, S. Montoya, A., Yin, H., Soong, L., and Lanzaro, G. C. Antigenic diversity in maxadilan, a salivary protein from the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 286-293, 2004.

Norsworthy, N. B., Sun, J., Elnaiem, D. Lanzaro, G. C., and Soong, L. Sand fly saliva enhances Leishmania amazonensis infection by modulating IL-10 production. Infection and Immunity. 72: 1240-1247, 2004.

Tripet, F., Traoré, S., Dolo, D., and Lanzaro, G. C. The 'wingbeat' hypothesis of reproductive isolation between members of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) does not fly. J. Med. Entomol. 41: 375-384, 2004.


Arrivillaga, J., Mutebi, JP., Piñango, H., Norris, D., Alexander, J. B., Feliciangeli, M. D., and Lanzaro, G. C. The taxonomic status of genetically divergent populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on the distribution of mitochondrial and isozyme variation. J. Med. Entomol. 40: 615-627, 2003.

Lanzaro, G. C. and Tripet, F. Gene flow among populations of Anopheles gambiae: A critical review. In: Ecological Aspects for the Application of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes. (pp. 109-132) Eds. Takken, W. and Scott T.W. Frontis Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2003.

Tripet, F., Touré, Y. T., Dolo, D., and Lanzaro, G. C. Frequency of multiple inseminations in field-collected Anopheles gambiae females revealed by DNA analysis of transferred sperm. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 1-5, 2003.


Mutebi, J-P, Tripet, F., Alexander, J. B., and Lanzaro, G. C. Genetic differentiation among populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central and South America. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 96: 740-752, 2002.

Arrivillaga, J. C., Norris, D. E., Feliciangeli, M. D., and Lanzaro, G. C. Phylogeography of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) using mitochondrial DNA. Inf. Genet. Evol. 2: 83-95, 2002.

Carnahan, J., Zheng, L., Taylor, C. E., Touré, Y. T., Norris, D. E., Dolo, G., Diuk-Wasser, M., and Lanzaro, G. C. Genetic differentiation of Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations in Mali, West Africa using microsatellite loci. J. Heredity. 93: 249-253, 2002.

Edillo, F. E., Touré, Y. T., Lanzaro, G. C., Dolo, G., and Taylor, C. E. Spatial and habitat distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae and adults in Banambani village, Mali. J. Med. Entomol. 39: 70-77, 2002.


Black, W. C. IV, and Lanzaro, G. C. Patterns in the distribution of genetic variation among chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s: Introgressive hybridization, adaptive inversions, or recent reproductive isolation? Insect Mol. Biol. 10: 3-7, 2001.

Morris, R.V., Shoemaker, C. B., David, J. R., Lanzaro, G. C., and Titus, R. G. Sandfly maxadilan exacerbates infection with Leishmania major and vaccinating against it protects against L. major infection. J. Immunol. 167: 5226-5230, 2001.

Norris, D. E., Shurtleff, A. C., Touré, Y. T., and Lanzaro, G. C. Microsatellite DNA polymorphism on chromosome 3 among field and laboratory populations of Anopheles gambiae. J. Med. Entomol. 38: 336-340, 2001.

Taylor, C. E., Touré, Y. T., Carnahan, J., Norris, D. E., Dolo, G., Traoré, S. F., Edillo, F. E., and Lanzaro, G. C. Gene flow among populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in Mali, West Africa. Genetics. 157: 743-750, 2001.

Tripet, F., Touré, Y. T., Taylor, C. E., Norris, D. E., Dolo, G., and Lanzaro, G. C. DNA analysis of transfered sperm reveals significant levels of gene flow between molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. Mol. Ecol. 10: 1725-1732, 2001.


Yin, H., Norris, D. E., and Lanzaro, G. C. Sibling species in the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex differ in levels of mRNA expression for the salivary peptide, maxadilan. Insect Mol. Biol. 9: 309-314, 2000.


Lanzaro, G. C., Ribeiro, J. M. C., Warburg, A., Shoemaker, C. B., Lopes, A. H. C. S., Soares, M., and Titus, R. G. Variation in the salivary peptide, maxadilan, from species in the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. Insect Mol. Biol. 8:267-276; 1999.

Arrivillaga, J. C., Rangel, Y., Lanzaro, G. C., and Feliciangeli, M. D.. Morphogenetics studies of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 15: 410-411, 1999.

Mutebi, J-P, J. B. Alexander, I. Sherlock, J. Wellington, A. A. Souza, J. Shaw, E. F. Rangel, and Lanzaro, G. C. Breeding structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) in Brazil. J. Amer. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61:149-157, 1999.


Lanzaro, G. C., Touré, Y. T., Carnahan, J., Zheng, L., Dolo, G., Traoré, S., Petrarca, V., Vernick, K.D., and Taylor, C. E. Complexities in the genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae populations in West Africa as revealed by microsatellite DNA. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:14260-14265; 1998.

Yin, H., Mutebi, J. P., Marriott, S., and Lanzaro, G. C. Metaphase karyotypes and chromosome G-banding in members of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex. Med. Vet. Entomol. 13:72-77; 1998.